The Province of (North) Cotabato lies on the eastern part of Region XII and is strategically located in the central part of Mindanao. It is bounded on the North by the Province of Bukidnon, on the northwest by Lanao del Sur, on the East by Davao City, on the Southeast by Davao del Sur, on the West by Maguindanao Province and on the southwest by Sultan Kudarat Province. Mountains to the east peak at Mount Apo, a volcanic cone that is the highest mountain in the Philippines. In the west, the Piapungan Range separates it from Lanao del Sur. The fertile Pulangi River basin runs in the middle of these two highlands and spreads towards the southwest to the flood plains of Maguindanao. Typhoons do not pass through (North) Cotabato and rainfall is evenly distributed through out the year.
There are about nineteen (19) types of soil found in the province of (North) Cotabato. Mountain soils, which are classified as undifferentiated, are found at the eastern and western part of the province.The most prevalent soil types in the province are of the clay loam type found mostly in the plains are best suited for intensive crops like rice, corn and other permanent crops.