The predominant geological complex is the Cotabato Basin which empties into Illana Bay via Rio Grande de Mindanao into which flows most of its principal tributaries, namely: the Malasila and the Kabacan Rivers. The tributaries have carried silt for centuries from the mountain ranges of Bukidnon and the province, depositing these in the lowlands which resulted in the agricultural lands in the province.
SOIL TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE CONDITIONS
The province’s terrain varies from flat, fertile plains to irregular landscape of wide valleys, scattered hills and extensive mountain ranges such as the Kitubod Range, Mt. Apo which forms the natural boundary between (North) Cotabato Province and Davao City and Davao del Sur Province and the Tuael Range, which joins the municipalities of Pres. Roxas, Magpet and Matalam.A big portion of the land of North Cotabato province is classified as upland with a topography ranging from level to nearly level to gently sloping to undulating; undulating to rolling; rolling to moderately steep; steep to very steep. Areas with level to nearly level are found in Kabacan, Matalam, Libungan, Carmen, Pikit and parts of Tulunan, M’lang and Midsayap.The drainage condition in the province is generally poor with some portions classified as good to fair drainage. These conditions are mostly found along the plains and valleys. In the upland areas the drainage conditions range from good to fair to excessive erosion as a result of massive forest destruction.
The rich vast land resources of the Province stretch over an area of 656,590 hectares representing 36 percent of the regional land area (1,815,500 hectares). It ranks first in terms of land area among the four provinces of Region XII. The province of Cotabato is composed of seventeen (17) municipalities and one (1) city with five hundred forty three (543) legally created barangays, with Kidapawan City as its Capital.
There are about 19 types of soil found in the province of Cotabato. Mountain soils, which are undifferentiated, are found at the eastern and western part of the province. Clay loam soil is found in the municipalities of Carmen, Tulunan, Pigcawayan and Pikit while the municipalities of Aleosan, Midsayap, Banisilan and part of Magpet, Pigcawayan and Pres. Roxas have a clay type soil. Sandy clay loam soils characterize those in the Municipalities of Makilala and Mlang and the City of Kidapawan.
The most prevailing soil types in the province are of clay loam type. These types are mostly found in the plains, which are best suited for intensive crops like corn, rice and other permanent crops.
Mineral products found in the province consist of non-metallic products defined as limestone, sand and gravel, soil and white clay. The first three items are considered as construction materials while the white clay is a good raw material for porcelain production and considered as one of the best white clay resource in the country. It is abundant in the municipalities of Banisilan, Pres. Roxas, Mlang, Makilala and Magpet particularly in the barangays of Dolis, Inac and Nowa.
The province has several ceramics processing which are either unregistered or registered enterprises. Magpet Ceramics located at Magpet, Cotabato is an LGU-managed enterprise that specializes in the making of pots and jars, table wares, novelties and art wares.
The province is traversed with several rivers and creeks, which abound with freshwater fish. Many people depend much on freshwater fishing especially those in the vicinities of Liguasan Marsh and Libungan Marsh.
The major power source of the Mindanao Grid is the Lanao Lake-Agus River hydro-electric power complex with a total power potential of 1,000 megawatts. Supplementing the hydro-potential power of the Mindanao Grid are the Cotabato and Agusan River Basin. The basins have potential of 1,605 megawatts and 991 megawatts, respectively or an aggregate total of 2,596 megawatts.
In support to the province’s growing economy, the Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC) has commissioned the generation of at least 52-megawatt sourced out from the Mt. Apo Geothermal Project. An additional capacity of 50 megawatt from the project is currently worked-out to ensure a stable energy supply for the province and its neighboring areas.
The agro-climate of the whole province is characterized by a rainfall region wherein the wet and dry seasons are not pronounced. Based on data, it was in CY 2003 that records the highest total monthly rainfall with 3,201.10 mm.
There was no recorded data on temperature in January since the maximum and minimum thermometer was only installed on the middle of this month. It was noted that the months of May until December were the hottest months and the coldest month was experienced during the month of February.
The collection of other data specifically on sunshine, wind speed and wind direction was not recorded due to the absence of equipment.Cotabato Province